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  • 1. Löv, Åsa
    et al.
    Cornelis, Geert
    Larsbo, Mats
    Persson, Ingmar
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Boye, Kristin
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Particle- and colloid-facilitated Pb transport in four historically contaminted soils - Speciation and effect of irrigation intensy2018In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 96, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the low solubility of lead (Pb) in many soils, colloidal and particulate transport may have large effects on Pb leaching. However, the role of colloidal and particulate transport varies considerably between soils and the mechanisms controlling mobilisation are complex and poorly known. Furthermore, increased frequency of high-intensity rainfall events is expected in some parts of Europe and North America in response to climate change, which might increase the mobilisation of particles and colloids. In this work, we investigated transport of particulate (greater than 0.45 mym), colloidal (10 kDa-0.45 mym) and truly dissolved (less than 10kDa) Pb in an irrigation experiment on intact soil columns from four historically contaminated soils. We also investigated the effect of irrigation intensity (2-20 mm h-1) on Pb leaching in these fractions. The mechanism binding Pb on particles and colloids was evaluated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and geochemical modelling. A 10-fold increase in irrigation intensity brought about at most a three-fold change in leached particulate and colloidal Pb concentrations. In contrast, the fraction of leached Pb associated with particles and colloids varied by one order of magnitude between soils. Hence, the results suggest that it is more important to consider soil type than potential future increases in rainfall. For one soil with high concentrations of both arsenic (As) and Pb, geochemical modelling indicated that mimetite, Pb5(AsO4)3Cl(s), was the major Pb species in the colloidal and particulate fractions. For the other three soils, EXAFS of Pb on isolated particles and colloids indicated that ferrihydrite was a major phase-sorbing Pb and this was supported by geochemical equilibrium modelling. Thus geochemical modelling can be used to indicate the speciation of Pb in particles and colloids leached in intact soils.

  • 2. Sjöstedt, C
    et al.
    Löv, Å
    Olivecrona, Z
    Boye, K
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Improved geochemical modeling of lead solubility in contaminated soils by considering colloidal fractions and solid phase EXAFS speciation2018In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 92, p. 110-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead (Pb) is a common contaminant in soils at e.g. mining, shooting range, and glassworks sites. In order to make reliable risk assessments and appropriate decisions on various "gentle remediation options", such as applying phosphate, compost, or zero-valent iron to soils, the binding mechanism of Pb and its speciation needs to be known. Multi-surface geochemical equilibrium models are useful tools for estimating trace metal solubility and speciation, but for Pb the predictions are often poor. This study evaluates the recent parameterization for Pb in the Visual MINTEQ code for its ability to predict the solubility of Pb at different pH values in four historically contaminated Swedish soils. As an independent validation of the model performance, the modeled solid-phase speciation was compared to measured Pb speciation retrieved using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  • 3.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Bendz, David
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Theorin, Gunilla
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Evaluating solubility of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in pyrite cinder using leaching tests and geochemical modelling2017In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 85, p. 106-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of sulfuric acid by roasting of pyrite (Fe sulfide) produces a Fe rich waste product, pyrite cinder (or pyrite ash), which often contains high levels of trace metals such as Zn and Pb. The chemical forms of the metals and their solubility in these materials are poorly known. To evaluate the risks associated with pyrite cinder and manage cinder contaminated sites efficiently more knowledge on the chemical processes in pyrite cinder is needed. In this study the solubility of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in a pyrite cinder from Bergvik, Sweden, was investigated. The objectives were to (i) identify the solubility controlling processes for Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in the pH range 3-9, (ii) characterize the Fe (hydr)oxides present in these materials and (iii) to identify implications for management strategies of pyrite cinder contaminated sites. This was done using a combination of batch experiments, selective extractions, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and geochemical modelling. Hematite was identified as the dominating Fe mineral in the cinder. A geochemical model using generic binding parameters could describe the solubility of Zn, Cu and Cd in the cinder well, while Pb concentrations were generally underestimated. The modelling indicated that adsorption to Fe (hydr)oxides was the most important solubility controlling mechanism for all metals, except for Zn at pH greater than 6, where Zn minerals seemed to control the concentrations of Zn. To minimize leaching of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd from cinder materials, remediation strategies should be focused on keeping the pH greater than 6.

  • 4. Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Bendz, David
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Carlsson, Christel
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Sparrenbom, Charlotte J
    Kreuger, Jenny
    Modelling pesticide transport in a shallow groundwater catchment using tritium and helium-3 data2014In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 50, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using tritium and helium-3 data for calibration, a 2-D transport model was set up to explain the occurrence of bentazone, dichlorprop, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA and metamitron in a small groundwater catchment in southern Sweden. The model was parameterised with site-specific degradation and sorption data to enable transport simulations. Local climatological data and a 21-year record of agricultural pesticide use within the study area were used as boundary conditions. Model output was evaluated against a 7-year long pesticide monitoring data-series from two monitoring wells within the study area. The model successfully predicts observed breakthrough of bentazone, dichlorprop, isoproturon and MCPA. However, it fails to simulate observed occurrences of glyphosate and metamitron. Glyphosate and metamitron exhibit relatively high sorption potential, and their occurrence is suggested to be the result of non-equilibrium preferential flow paths which the model cannot reproduce due the conceptualisation of the system as homogenous and isotropic. The results indicate a promising methodological approach applicable to groundwater contamination risk assessment, and demonstrate the potential for transport model calibration by means of tritium and helium-3 data. Main constraints of the study relate to the relatively simple system conceptualisation, indicating a need for further consideration of physical and chemical heterogeneity.

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