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  • 1. Andersson, Robert
    Back, Pär-Erik
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Rosén, Lars
    What's the point? The contribution of a sustainability view in contaminated site remediation2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 630, s. 103-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision support tools (DST) are often used in remediation projects to aid in the complex decision on how best to remediate a contaminated site. In recent years, the sustainable remediation concept has brought increased attention to the often-overlooked contradictory effects of site remediation, with a number of sustainability assessment tools now available. The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to demonstrate how and when different assessment views affect the decision support outcome on remediation alternatives in a DST, and (2) to demonstrate the contribution of a full sustainability assessment. The SCORE tool was used in the analysis; it is based on a holistic multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach, assessing sustainability in three dimensions: environmental, social, and economic. Four assessment scenarios, compared to a full sustainability assessment, were considered to reflect different possible assessment views; considering public and private problem owner perspectives, as well as green and traditional assessment scopes. Four real case study sites in Sweden were analyzed. The results show that the decision support outcome from a full sustainability assessment most often differs to that of other assessment views, and results in remediation alternatives which balance trade-offs in most of the scenarios. In relation to the public perspective and traditional scope, which is seen to lead to the most extensive and expensive remediation alternatives, the trade-off is related to less contaminant removal in favour of reduced negative secondary effects such as emissions and waste disposal. Compared to the private perspective, associated with the lowest cost alternatives, the trade-off is higher costs, but more positive environmental and social effects. Generally, both the green and traditional assessment scopes miss out on relevant social and local environmental secondary effects which may ultimately be very important for the actual decision in a remediation project.

  • 2.
    Göransson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Norrman, Jenny
    Larson, Magnus
    Contaminated landslide runout deposits in rivers - Method for estimating long-term ecological risks2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 642, s. 553-566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential catastrophic event of a landslide bringing contaminants to surface waters has been highlighted in public media, but there are still few scientific studies analyzing the risk of landslides with contaminated soil. The aim of this study is to present a method to estimate the risk of potential long-term ecological effects on water bodies due to contaminated soil released into a river through a landslide. The study constitutes further development of previous work focusing on the instantaneous (short-term) release of contaminants and associated effects. Risk is here defined as the probability of surface water failing to comply with environmental quality standards (EQS). The transport model formulation is kept simple enough to allow for a probabilistic analysis as a first assessment of the impact on the river water quality from a landslide runout deposit containing contaminated soil. The model is applied at a contaminated site located adjacent to the Göta Älv River that discharges into the Gothenburg estuary, in southwest Sweden. The results from the case study show that a contaminated runout deposit will likely cause contamination levels above EQSs in the near area for a long time and that it will take several years for the deposit to erode, with the greatest erosion at the beginning when water velocities are their highest above the deposit. A contaminated landslide runout deposit will thus act as a source of contamination to the downstream water system until all the contaminated deposit has been eroded away and the contaminants have been transported from the deposit to the river, and further to the river mouth – diluted but not necessarily negligible. Therefore, it is important to prevent landslides of contaminated soil or waste, and if such events were to occur, to remove the contaminated runout deposit as soon as possible.

  • 3.
    Göransson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Norrman, Jenny
    Larson, Magnus
    Alén, Claes
    Rosén, Lars
    Methodology for estimating risks associated with landslides of contaminated soil into rivers2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, s. 481-495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban areas adjacent to surface water are exposed to soil movements such as erosion and slope failures (landslides). A landslide is a potential mechanism for mobilisation and spreading of pollutants. This mechanism is in general not included in environmental risk assessments for contaminated sites, and the consequences associated with contamination in the soil are typically not considered in landslide risk assessments. This study suggests a methodology to estimate the environmental risks associated with landslides in contaminated sites adjacent to rivers. The methodology is probabilistic and allows for datasets with large uncertainties and the use of expert judgements, providing quantitative estimates of probabilities for defined failures. The approach is illustrated by a case study along the river Göta Älv, Sweden, where failures are defined and probabilities for those failures are estimated. Failures are defined from a pollution perspective and in terms of exceeding environmental quality standards (EQSs) and acceptable contaminant loads. Models are then suggested to estimate probabilities of these failures. A landslide analysis is carried out to assess landslide probabilities based on data from a recent landslide risk classification study along the river Göta Älv. The suggested methodology is meant to be a supplement to either landslide risk assessment (LRA) or environmental risk assessment (ERA), providing quantitative estimates of the risks associated with landslide in contaminated sites. The proposed methodology can also act as a basis for communication and discussion, thereby contributing to intersectoral management solutions. From the case study it was found that the defined failures are governed primarily by the probability of a landslide occurring. The overall probabilities for failure are low; however, if a landslide occurs the probabilities of exceeding EQS are high and the probability of having at least a 10 % increase in the contamination load within one year is also high.

  • 4.
    Suer, Pascal
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Wik, Ola
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    Reuse and recycle - Considering the soil below constructions2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485-486, s. 792-797Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Construction Products Regulation provides a life cycle based framework for the environmental assessment of construction products. Harmonised European standards for the assessment of the release of dangerous substances and for declaration of environmental performance are in progress. Risk based limit values for the protection of soil and groundwater below construction works will still bet set nationally. In this paper we review the possibilities to expand the ongoing harmonisation to include risk assessment and life cycle assessment (LCA). Based on reviews of national European limit value models (LMVs) for assessment of release to soil and groundwater, two areas for harmonisation emerge: (1) The toxicological criteria. Toxicological endpoints to protect human health and environment are similar, and data from the same toxicological data sets are used to establish acceptance criteria. (2)The emission part of LMVs. We extracted six generic construction works for granular materials. These encompass the most common choices and span the different release scenarios applied.

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